A submarine is a watercraft designed for independent submerged operation underwater.
Military uses include attacking enemy surface ships or other submarines, aircraft carrier protection, blockade running, nuclear deterrence, reconnaissance, conventional land attack using a cruise missile, and covert insertion of special forces. Submarines could carry cargo through hostile waters or act as supply vessels for ships and other submarines.
The primary defense of a submarine lies in its ability to remain concealed in the depths of the ocean. Modern submarines are built with an emphasis on stealth. Advanced propeller designs, extensive sound-reducing insulation, and special machinery help a submarine remain as quiet as ambient ocean noise, making them difficult to detect. It takes specialized technology to find and attack modern submarines.
A concealed military submarine is a real threat, and because of its stealth, can force an enemy navy to waste resources searching large areas of ocean and protecting ships against attack.
The development of submarine-launched ballistic missile and submarine-launched cruise missiles gave submarines a substantial and long-ranged ability to attack both land and sea targets with a variety of weapons ranging from cluster bombs to nuclear weapons.
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